stata encode numeric variable """ class InvalidColumnName (Warning): pass: invalid_name_doc = """ Not all pandas column names were valid Stata Dummy variables are incorporated in the same way as quantitative variables are included (as explanatory variables) in regression models. This is easy to fix. only use zip+state). convert variables from string to numeric in STATA - Duration: 4:27. An example of when one might need to do this is if they needed to append However, date variables in raw data are often stored as strings. type: xtset country year delta: 1 unit time variable: year, 1990 to 1999 panel variable: country (strongly balanced). What you're looking for is a numeric storage type (anything other than str) and a date display format (starts with %t o The address has to be coded in a single string variable similar to this: number+street+zip+town+state o Use your regional conventional address format and you should be fine, Google is quite clever. Note that real()/string() are functions and must be used in conjunction with a Stata command. Like other statistical packages, Stata distinguishes missing values. The encode and decode commands in Stata allow you to convert string variables to numeric variables (encode) and numeric variables to string variables (decode). Any variable in Stata's numeric format begins with a % sign. Enclose string variable values in quotes. Abstract: sencode is a sequential version of encode. Therefore, Stata offers tools to turn these date strings into values that, while still displaying sensical data to humans, are encoded in a numeric format that Stata likes. Worried about which technique to use for your task. 1: Create a log file called test. A special case are variables where numeric values are stored as a string variable, including cases when the numeric values are stored together with some (irrelevant) characters. then destring would be quite all right. wisc. Numeric types 1. Column {0} contains: non-string labels which will be converted to strings. encode, string, numeric, value labels SENCODE: Stata module to encode a string variable non-alphanumerically into a numeric variable. . To convert them to Stata dates do the following: gen date1=date(dateString1,"MDY") gen date2=date(dateString2,"MDY") gen date3=date(dateString3,"YMD###") Note that the mask goes in quotes. The second step is to associate a specific mapping with a particular variable using the . x list The categorical variable here is assumed to be represented by an underlying, equally spaced numeric variable. For example, cik (Central Index Key) itself is a 10-digit number used by SEC. Type: describe dob Have a look at the storage type and display format. > generate pop_c2 = pop > recode pop_c2 (min/2000000=1) (2000001/4800000=2) (4800001/max=3) (pop_c2: 50 changes made) * Summary statistics for the two recoded variables > summarize pop_c pop_c2 Variable | Obs Mean Std. ” In Stata, there are a few ways of converting string variables (with non-numeric values) to numeric variables (with numeric values). Start with: Code: label define ABC 1 "A" 2 "B" 3 "C" foreach v of varlist HAA* { encode `v', gen (_`v') label (ABC) drop `v' rename _`v' `v' } Now, the variables will still look like they are "A", "B", and "C", but internally they are coded 1, 2, 3 and you can use them in numeric calculations, etc. Before using xtregyou need to set Stata to handle panel data by using the command xtset. sysuse auto Amir sorry to bother you. . 1. There are two basic formats for numeric variables, which will be described shortly; other, very special formats (exponential, binary, hexadecimal) are not Using the 'encode' command in Stata to create numerical indicator variables from text or string source variable. Why n-1? This is to avoid the issue of multicollinearity (explained later). tabulate region, generate (dregion) This single command will generate twelve indicator variables (dregion1, dregion2, etc. wpd String Variables in Stata - Numeric to String, and Concatenating1 The following document provides an example of how to create string variables from numeric variables, and then concatenate string variables into one. 1. Specifically: “variable” - In Stata this refers only to columns in the active data set. In any numeric variable 6==06 and so 06==6. 1 Stata provides five numeric types for storing variables, three of them integer types and two of them floating point. In the CCHS dataset, many variables have missing values coded as “. csv. 250417 end * tsset variables must be numeric * so this creates numeric code for country encode country, gen(ccode) list tsset ccode year gen diff_x = D. What I meant by "wiped" was that the dataset goes from 23274 observations and 14 variables to 1 observation and 1 variable. 4 Stata uses these five types for the storage of data. 23 3. encode is most useful in making string variables accessible to Stata’s statistical routines, most of which can work only with numeric variables. 2. Some common procedures are below; for others, check the Stata documentation. If you also specify the label option, egen will create a value label for the numeric code it produces so that your output will be subsequently more readable:. Dan Blanchette, 2004. In the "Are variable names included at the top of your file" area, click Yes or No. String variables that seemingly should be numeric require some care. destring : convert string variables to numeric. In the example below the time variable is stored in “date” but it is a string variable not a date variable. The encode command assigns a number to each different string, starting with the number 1 and continuing on (2, 3, 4, etc), while applying a value label to each number. This is necessary as the date function can work only on string variables. smcl in the C:\ directory: . The second line of code uses the date function to generate a new variable date2 from the existing variable datevar. This command generates a new variable named ‘rep2’ which takes on the value of 1 only for observations where rep78 is equal to 2. Stata offers at least 2 commands for a one way anova: oneway or anova. encode var, gen(newvar) creates a numeric variable newvar by assigning a numeric value to each of var 's string value. Syntax step1: tempvar var1 (declaring variable name) Step2: commands referring to `var1 I've been trying to figure out how to convert a string variable to numeric in my dataset. 3 Value labels. Thetable should look like: Nowselect the whole data set, press Ctrl-C, go to the Stata’sdata editorandpress Ctrl-V to paste the data, you should have the following: Anotheralternative is to save the file as *. encode is also useful in reducing the size of a dataset. Users can assign such a display format or work with a display format assigned by default. It takes, as input, a string variable, and generates, as output, a numeric variable, with value labels corresponding to values of the string variable. STATA variable names must be 32 characters long,2 or shorter, and begin with a letter or underscore (_). The SMCL format preserves graphs and Stata formats, but the ASCII format is easily copied into Word or other text editor. It assumes that a numeric variable has labels, and it will use the labels to create the new (string) values of the variable. [period] in your dataset. Exercise 1. Then click Next. generate urbdum = 0 replace urbdum= 1 if urb>50. Alternatively, you may just write. You can browse but not post. encode is also useful in reducing the size of a dataset. It is usually possible to adjust the numeric date or datetime values to the sentinel date and units that Stata uses. xtset country year convert string to Stata-compatible variable name 7 6 convert string to a numeric or missing value _merge code row only Convert String Variables to Numeric in Stata. We specify this J variable in the option j (new variable). The Stata command "destring" and "encode" could be used to convert string variables to Stata recognizes these non-numeric values as “string” values and their variables are called “string variables. It converts between ISO codes (both alphabetic and numeric), Correlates of War (alphabetic and numeric), IMF, Library of Congress, UNCTAD, and Your aa variable must already be a numeric variable, as trying to run xtile with a string variable produces an expected error:. Wewill save here as GDPTest. sysuse auto . With this two-step The first line of code converts the numeric variable to string variable. When creating data sets, especially large ones, choose a storage selection that uses only the space that you • Stata recognizes two types of variables: string and numeric. For example, I have possible values for hometown. Replace the string variable. You'll want to use encode to convert them to numeric variables with text labels. g. drop countrycode We then must address that the time-series variables are named var4-var48, as the header line provided invalid Stata variable names (numeric values) for those columns. destring id, replace Converts the variable id into numeric variable Feels like an obvious question, but Stata help hasn't yielded answers. D) The encode command will convert a string variable to numeric and will label its values automatically Because the variable prgtype is a string variable, it cannot be used in any commands requiring numerical calculations. Stata recognizes a line starting with ”*” or “//” as text and not a command. The basic missing value for numeric variables is represented by Well, as Stata has complained to you, "23:00:00" and the like are string variables, so you cannot -replace- numbers like 1 through 24 with those values. • If you have a string variable and you need to generate numeric codes, you may find useful the command encode. set obs 1 obs was 0, now 1. If a ﬁle contains a combination of string and numeric values in a variable, it should be read as string, and encode used to convert it to numeric with string value labels. Let’s use the auto data for our examples. Strings are ideally suited for id variables • You can convert between numeric and string variables. generate mystr = "42" Now type. We can easily create a dummy variable for married/not married. This video demonstrates how to convert categorical string variables to labeled numeric For example, you might want to convert a continuous reading score that ranges from 0 to 100 into 3 groups (say low, medium and high). The first line of syntax reads in the dataset shown above. In our experience, both producing such a variable from other variables and working with such a variable are much easier when it is a string variable than when it is an integer-valued numeric variable. These five steps relate to generation of a new variable, and should be preceded by a summary of the old variable, and followed by a comparison with the new variable to make sure you did not make a coding mistake. generate variable22 = tostring(age) Here, we have asked Stata to produce a new variable from the existing variable “age. The format of a variable is displayed when you describe the variable. For example, 1+1 is 2, but "1" + "1" is "11". A string variable with values like "01:00:00" through "23:00:00" will be close to useless for any kind of calculations you want to do. existing numeric variables, operators, and functions. Now click OK. Suppose you already downloaded a monthly series from IPEADATA and transferred it to Stata. I have two variables in Stata, both numeric variables that have somehow been recorded as string variables. Alternatively, use egen with the built-in rowmean option: On 2010-02-09, I posted this example on strategies for labeling values for lots of variables efficiently in Stata. Data Get descriptives; Saving your data as you go: the snapshot feature; Basic data entry; The variables manager; Adding value labels to numeric variables; Numeric categorical to string/string to numeric Tab autocompletes variable name after typing part AT COMMAND PROMPT Ctrl 9 open a new . " Stata deals with missing variables in di erent ways depending on the command: I generate: Stata treats a missing value as the largest possible value (e. data with value labels are displayed in blue in the data browser/editor. Login or Register by clicking 'Login or Register' at the top-right of this page. The question to you is for each of these combinations, what do you want the result to be? There are two steps involved to convert the numeric variable to Stata format. I know a little bit stata. VARIABLE IN STATA Variable names may be 1 to 32 characters long and must start with a-z, A-Z, or _ and the remaining characters may be a-z, A-Z, _, or 0-9. sas"; To convert numeric variables with a string (numbers in red) format into numeric we use the command destring destring , replace As you can see some variables were replaced by a numeric format but others did not (see along the red line, the screen may differ a bit from what you see) because they contain some string characters. Note that . * A closer inspection of the variable, for the years 2000 the format changes, we need to create a new 1. Both of these variables have a numeric part. In a case where your string variables are in fact strings (e. encode : generate numeric variable from categorical variable. This will format the data as numeric with twodecimals. Because cik is of different digits, to convert the numeric cik into a character variable, the natural procedure is to pad it with leading zeros. 1s to 1. The destring command. Converting Numeric/String Variables encode; decode. String variables are shown in red . yu. 43 This means that the variable sic0 is numeric. 1. Now let's do two tabulate s, one with labels and one without labels. If a variable has been read as a string but Two-Step Method to Generate Dummy Variable in Stata: Step 1: generate rep2 = 1 if rep78==2. Variable types: string, byte ,int ,long , float & double Numerical Variable Numbers are stored as byte, int, long, float, or double with the default being float. Unfortunately, it's very common for numeric variables to be imported into Stata as strings. With convert. label values command. In Stata the commands are: Otherwise, you can use encode to convert string data into a numeric variable or decode to convert numeric variables to strings. xtile qmake = make , nq(5) type mismatch r(109); So if you were able to run xtile bb=aa,nq(5), you must have a numeric variable aa, and now you want 5 You want them in numeric format. In order to replace “make”, we will use the command: destring make, replace We can use the -recode- command to recode variables as well. Tempvar creates a temporary variable which is valid only in a single execution of commands in do-files or ado-files. dataprep. You can't use numeric functions such as addition or subtraction on string variables. Researchers occasionally receive data sets created in other programs where the variable names are in upper case letters. Characters listed in ignore() are removed. If the categorical variable y you want to plot is string, run encode beforehand to create a labeled numeric Stata: Continent variable based on Country variable (ISO code [ISO3166- numeric]) Standard I recently wanted to examine migrants’ labour market situation by their continent of birth , however datasets like the EU-Labour Forces Survey or EU-SILC or the UK-LFS, don’t provide a continent variable. com) Tim Essam (tessam@usaid. encode is most useful in making string variables accessible to Stata’s statistical routines, most of which can work only with numeric variables. idre. This is really just a numeric variable with a label. convert variables from string to numeric in STATAearnings management data code, destring, encode, identiﬁers, missing values, numeric variables, spreadsheets, string functions, string variables, tostring, value labels 1Thegreat divide Stata datasets are composed of variables, and those variables may take one or more diﬀerent types. Generate a dummy variable: Countries below 50% of urbanization=0, above 50=1. The maximum number of associations within each value label is 65,536. • encode sex, generate(gender) makes a new variable gender that creates a new variable that is essentially identical to sex, except that the value labels were assigned to gender and we can use STATA to perform statistical commands on the new-numeric variable gender, whereas the original string variable sex is not recognized. Additionally, Stata provides nine ways to encode the date and time numerically. amazon. In this post, I show how to convert string variables to numeric in Stata. generate urbdum= (urb>50) generate urbdum= (urb>50) produces the variable as when urb>50 is true Stata produces a value or 1 (for true) and 0 otherwise (=false). string() string(n) is a synonym for strofreal(n) and converts numeric or missing values to strings. This is necessary as the date function can work only on string variables. Let’s start with the destring command first. label define command to create a mapping between numeric values and the words or phrases used to describe those values. Step 3 of 6 How do I convert all variable names to lowercase in Stata? The command to use is rename *, lowerrename *, lower The purpose of this page is to really explore different actions or options that Stata offers. 6. decode will work the other way round. However, Stata does not actually shrink string variable types when you shorten their values. char_id = put (id, 7. //or Encode (see [D] encode) has long been one of Stata's basic data-management commands. forvalues : loop over a numlist, performing a block of code. The ordering of the Stata has no objection to fractions; that would be absurd. so, I can order a put the variable that I would not like to destring in the first place. https://www. Before you can do much work with them they need to be converted into numeric variables. d”. Stata supports numeric field types that map directly to SAS numeric fields. Thus suppose that you create new variables, for example,. For a given attribute variable, none of the dummy variables constructed can be redundant. edu Watch how to convert a string variable to a numeric variable. For Stata, the package kountry by Rafal Raciborsky. Do not use encode if varname contains numbers that merely happen to be stored as strings; instead, use generate newvar = real(varname) or destring; see real() or [D] destring. gov) follow us @StataRGIS and @flaneuseks However, it requires the number of variables and the number of observations per variable along with a vector specifying the string variable positions in the csv file as inputs. However, after saving the dataset in SAS, the variable continues to be read as string when I try to conduct PROC RE . tostring Convert a numeric variable to text (string) tostring id, replace Converts the variable id into string variable destring Convert a text (string) variable to numeric. Each different string will be replaced by a numeric variable; the previous (string) values will be attached as labels to the numeric values. Here we create another new variable called pop_c2 then do the recode in the same manner as we did for pop_c. Numeric variables are BLACK when you browse the data. You'll need to identify the non numeric characters and replace them. Tip #2. a) Look at the nlsw88dates2 data set. In general, the polynomial contrast produces polynomials of order k-1. Use help date function and find it if necessary. Learn how to change string variables into numeric variables and numeric variables into string variables in Stata. 5 Dates, Times, & Stata. I need them converted to numeric variables so that I can generate a new variable with them. If you are not familiar with value labels, read [U] 12. String variables are shown in red . 22268 US 1991 0. D) The encode command will convert a string variable to numeric and will label its values automatically Because the variable prgtype is a string variable, it cannot be used in any commands requiring numerical calculations. This is plenty for most (but not all) purposes. You can use egen with the cut() function to do this quickly and easily, as illustrated below. I am trying to create the average_waiting_days for each category under the category string variable. I want to convert the numeric date variable "cdint" (type: long, format: %tdD_m_Y) to a string variable. The program will not bin values of x. gov) • Laura Hughes (lhughes@usaid. For example: clear all set more off input id str5 age 1 "32" 2 "14" 3 "65" 4 "54" 5 "98" end list encode age, gen(age2) destring age, gen(age3) list, nolabel Variable list in STATA. If a numeric variable is stored as a string variable in Stata, we have several ways to convert them to numeric variables. Stata date variables become SAS numerics with a date format. The program will not ‘bin’ values of x. It's a common mistake when importing data to accidentally make Stata think a numeric variable is a string. Hi, here's the complete code and log. One may also ask, what does encode mean in Stata? Description. describe Contains data obs: 4 vars: 2 size: 48 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ storage display value variable name type format label variable label 2destring— Convert string variables to numeric variables and vice versa Description destring converts variables in varlist from string to numeric. What is more fundamental, however, is a division between two diﬀerent kinds. Over lunch today, a friend asked how to generate a new variable that will have unique numeric IDs corresponding to the string values in an existing variable. int can store numbers up to about 32,000 and long up to about two billion. substr works for string variables. 282 Speaking Stata: Finding variables or making them impossible. 3 The integer types are byte, int, and long. If you have a categorical variable stored in a string format, first encode it to convert to numeric, then run rescale. g. The same set of value labels is used for all the new variables. egen newcatvar= group(mystringcatvar), label Alternatively, you can use encode to convert string categorical variables to numeric ones:. 2. edu encode (see [D] encode) has long been one of Stata’s basic data-management com-mands. To generate twelve indicator variables based on the variable region, execute the following code in Stata:. In any numeric variable 6==06 and so 06==6. g. The “recode” command changes the values of numeric variables according to the rules specified. histogram myvar – plot a histogram of a variable. And suppose they are both 0/1 variables as you suggest in post #3, that gives four combinations. Sort variables (alphabetical) Dealing with string variables; Text to numbers: encode command; Extracting from numeric or string combination (regexr) Deconstructing a numeric variable (substr) Dropping observations using a string variable (regexm) Publishing regression output; Outreg2 (with F-tests) Outreg2 with Ivreg The Stata command to run fixed/random effecst is xtreg. Stata tip 99: Taking extra care with encode Clyde Schechter Albert Einstein College of Medicine Yeshiva University New York, NY clyde. • The Stata commands introduced in this tutorial are: generate Creates new numeric variables from expressions containing . byte, int and long are all integers of various sizes. All values of the variable must be numbers. Most Stata users are interested in converting a non-date variable into a date variable, but I want the opposite. For a variable (for example, q1) that contains integers ranging from 1 to 7, to collapse the values into three categories, use: recode q1 1=1 2=1 3/5=2 6=3 7=3 Stata has some great tools that really ease the process of including categorical variables Logistic Regression Diagnostics "When the assumptions of logistic regression analysis are not met, we may have problems, such as biased coefficient estimates or very large standard errors for the logistic regression coefficients, and these problems may D) The encode command will convert a string variable to numeric and will label its values automatically Because the variable prgtype is a string variable, it cannot be used in any commands requiring numerical calculations. Fortunately, Stata has a nice little command called encode (type help encode for details): encode country, generate(country1) I use Stata13 and I need assistance on how to graph selected variables (numeric) on country basis (string). The number of distinct values gives you a clue. csv) Describe and summarize Rename Variable labels Adding value labels Creating new variables recode: change the values of numeric variables egen: create variables containing summary measures such as mean varname[#]: observation # of varname n ( N): current observation number (total number of observations) Jeehoon Han jhan4@nd. The problem is that you need to flag your use of commas. 6. Copyright 2011-2019 StataCorp LLC. com/gp/product/1597182699 Using the 'encode' command in Stata NB: Some of these methods assume that the values don't have spaces or symbols that Stata wouldn't accept in the variable names - otherwise, assign only the variable labels and then see below how to convert labels into names. Which variables look like dates, but are currently string variables? Change these to Stata date format. Since Stata actually cares about case, upper case variable names can be tiresome to work with. Not surprisingly, Stata requires the numeric variable to be labeled; these labels will be used as strings to represent the different values. It takes, as input, a string variable, and generates, as output, a numeric variable, with value labels . It is not for fixing data input errors. The first step is to use the . Commonly when people convert data from Excel (and elsewhere) their date is stored as a string. use the nolabel option on some commands to see the numeric values you gave them : list BvDIDNumber, nolabel. o You can also omit certain entries (e. MM. Stata variables are all associated with a display format. encode countrycode, generate(cc). It may be abbreviated en . First off, it's a rule in Stata that string variables can't have value labels. (I can think of one exception: if somehow a date in years had been imported as string with values "1960", "1961", etc. Categorical variables are BLUE . Strings can be converted into numeric in two ways. "NSPLIT: Stata module to split numeric variable into components," Statistical Software Components S447901, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 26 Feb 2011. describe Contains data obs: 1 vars: 2 size: 6 storage display value name, and the list exists in Stata but it is not assigned to the variable until we specify a label value statement. From there what you do depends on how you want the data to be displayed. destring is a wrapper for real(), so real() is not a way round this. For instance, consider a variable "name" that takes the value Convert string variable to numeric variable – use the “encode” command or the “destring” command b. string (n) and real (s) are two string functions that convert numeric/string to string/numeric variables. To further clarify, I'm trying to convert all the observations of the ETHNICIT variable from numeric to character (ex. Missing data values will affect how Stata handles your data. 1, 2, 3) in the R output. encode takes a string variable and converts it to a numeric variable with the values labeled according to the original strings. Dates in string form, identifiers and categorical variables, and pure numeric content trapped in string form need different actions. We use rename(see [D] rename) to change v4to d1960, v5to d1961, and so on: forv i=4/48 {rename v‘i’ d‘=1956+‘i’’} A categorical variable, as the name suggests, is used to represent categories or labels. destring variable20, generate variable21 Conversely, we can ask Stata to convert a variable stored as numeric to a string variable: . Where rep78 equals 1, 3, 4, 5, rep2 will be populated with missing values (. Handle: RePEc:boc:bocode:s447901 Note: This module should be installed from within Stata by typing "ssc install nsplit". The data should now import. Fixed width: Variables are aligned in fixed width columns. Introduction to Stata - Generating variables using the generate, replace, and label commands - Duration: 8:31. This can happen to both string and numeric variables, but right now, we are going to emphasize the numeric case. If necessary, choose the symbol used to denote decimals. do file keyboard buttons + Data Processing with Stata 15 Cheat Sheet For more info see Stata’s reference manual (stata. "February 1, 1960 " or "2/1/1960" In order to use Stata time series commands and tsset this needs to be converted to a number that Stat understands. The smallest, byte, can only store numbers below 100 but takes up very little memory, making it ideal for indicator and categorical variables. I'm trying to append it to a dataset in which the same variable date is type long and format %12. In SAS, convert numeric variable to string with leading zeros (assuming 10-digit fixed length) is done via PUT() function: If for some reason you want to convert a numeric variable into a string variable, you may use the complementary function decode. "MULTENCODE: Stata module to encode multiple string variables into numeric," Statistical Software Components S456993, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 21 Jan 2009. encode is also useful in reducing the size of a dataset. edu Empirical Research in Economics Using Stata The default storage of numeric data in Stata is as ‘float’; it provides 7 digits of accuracy after the decimal point. b) Now create a stata date variable from the 3 variables which give questionnaire day, month and year. Formats for numeric variables. We need to put this into numeric by recoding 1 = country A, 2 = B, 3 = C, etc. . 1. Stata uses some programming terminology in unique ways. Use the command encode with the option generate as follows: With the encode command, add the gen() option to put the newly created numeric values in a new variable. One method of converting numbers stored as strings into numerical variables is to use a string function called real that translates numeric values stored as strings into numeric values Stata can recognize as such. encode make, gen(make_num) creates the numeric variable make_num. Subsequently, each variable can be stored in a number of storage types (byte, int, long; float, and double for numeric variables and str1 to str224 for string variables). . ] Thus, an encoding method is needed to turn these non-numeric The default is to use Stata ‘value labels’ for the factor levels. etc). format v17. Use theory to check IDs if they are numeric. Roger Newson () Statistical Software Components from Boston College Department of Economics. e. , 2s to 2. For instance, a categorical variable could represent major cities in the world, the four seasons in a year, or the industry (oil, travel, technology) of a company. regress, use, display. 12 2. A common issue that arises when converting time series data from IPEADATA to Stata format is dealing appropriately with the time variable. Translated into plain English (although code is straightforward) this is: for each variable that starts with make, encode it generating a new variable, then drop the old one and rename the new one. 0e+2 for a hundred). factors = "string", the factor levels are written as strings (the name of the value label is taken from the "val. drop countrycode We then must deal with the fact that the timeseries variables are named var4-var48, as the header line provided invalid Stata variable names (numeric values) for those columns. Yet, using tempvar is more efficient. The syntax should look like this in general: reshape long stub, i(i) j(j) In this case, 1) the stub should be inc, which is the variable to be converted from wide to long, 2) i is the id variable, which is the unique identifier of observations in wide form, and 3) j is the year variable that I am going to create – it tells Stata that suffix of inc (i. encode is for mapping genuine categorical variables to integers, as you discovered, and as its help does explain. For example, if we consider a Mincer-type regression model of wage determination, wherein wages are dependent on gender (qualitative) and years of education (quantitative): converting string dates to a numeric date - difficult Dates are often given in data sets as string variables e. edu> Sent: Sunday, December 08, 2002 10:24 AM Subject: st: encode(x) when x is numeric > i have a dataset with an x which is a numeric variable. To Stata, the value 1 and the character "1" are completely different things. It provides a mapping between the numeric value and the value label. It takes two arguments: the name of the numeric variable and a SAS format or user-defined format for writing the data. I'm on mobile right now, but I think there is a group function associated with egen. For example in my study, there are three possible hometowns; Moscow, New York and London. Today I discovered a function in NJC's-egenmore- extension of -egen- that I think is easier to use and, in many cases, faster to implement than the combination of -labutil- and -multencode- that I had suggested in my Feb 9 posting; so, to extend my previous example, here how we D) The encode command will convert a string variable to numeric and will label its values automatically Because the variable prgtype is a string variable, it cannot be used in any commands requiring numerical calculations. All rights reserved. Whichever of the five types Stata uses depends on the number of digits. The commonest way to achieve this is probably by using the encode command, i. How can I create a string variable stateString that would have string values without all those numeric values? sencode is a sequential version of encode. If this is incorrect you can specify your own pattern to match on. Unlike decode, sdecode creates an output string variable containing the values of the input variable as output by the list command and other Stata output, instead of decoding all unlabelled input values to missing. Versions 118 and 119 support Unicode characters, and version 119 supports more than 32,767 variables. Stata has some utility commands for creating new variables: The egen command is useful for working across groups of variables or within groups of observations. One-hot encoding: assign 1 to specific category and 0 to other category and transform categorical variable to dummy variable. 2. The number of dummy variables necessary to represent a single attribute variable is equal to the number of levels (categories) in that variable minus one. Running this command will cause Stata to make a new numeric categorical variable wherein the data has labels that correspond to the old string values. Note: Missing variables are stored as ". csvformat. Abstract: sencode is a sequential version of encode. Often data is imported into Stata with string format dates such as 10/09/1986 or 9oct1986. local : define or modify a local macro (scalar variable) use : load a Note: Stata does all calculations using doubles, and the compress command finds the most economical way to store each variable in your dataset • Strings have varying lengths up to 244 characters. ). The main problems that may arise and their possible solutions are surveyed with reference both to official Stata and to user-written programs. Remember the function mdy for month, day and year. The most convenient way to change text data into numeric variable is to use encode command. Alternatively, we can make variables and then erase them manually. The first line of code converts the numeric variable to string variable. e. I note this information about the variables in my wage do-file. string(n) and real(s) are two string functions that convert numeric/string to string/numeric variables. As in encode, you can (and should) create a new variable using the gen() option multencode creates new numeric variables newvarlist, with value labels defined and attached, based on the string variables strvarlist. Handle: RePEc:boc:bocode:s458862 Note: This module should be installed from within Stata by typing "ssc install encodelabel". encode creates a new variable named newvar based on the string variable varname, creating, adding to, or just using (as necessary) the value label newvar or, if specified, name. 1. Stata stores these things as (this is for reference only-you don’t need to worry about it!) byte (default) . do file important Stata commands that students of introductory econometrics will use frequently. The numeric version of the variable can either be a new variable, using option gen(), or a replacement of the string variable, using option replace. Code: clear input str2 country year x US 1990 7. See[D] egen for more information. Roger Newson () Statistical Software Components from Boston College Department of Economics. If the actual values of the var don't matter (like categorical variables) you could look at creating a new variable based on groups. Label encoding: assign ordinal integer to different categorical levels of categorical Version 119 is supported in Stata 15 and later. The variable could be the calculated proportion of some other variable and could have many distinct values between 0 and 1. Why n-1? This is to avoid the issue of multicollinearity (explained later). Converting Numbers to Dates. The maximum number of associations within each value label is 65,536. Version 114 limits string variables to 244 characters or fewer while versions 117 and later allow strings with lengths up to 2,000,000 characters. you need a numeric variable for country. To convert a string variable to a numeric variable num , use the NUMBER () function, for example: COMPUTE num = NUMBER (str, F8. contains numeric data, infile price mpg displacement using auto will read it. For instance, I want to graph the real GDP of 26 African countries on a histogram or bar And our target variable is numeric. If varlist is not speciﬁed, destring will attempt to convert all variables in the dataset from string to numeric. Stata Data Management Workshop . “macro” - What we would consider a variable in other languages. 3. 6. The dataset was originally in SPSS, where I changed the variable API08 from string to numeric. So, the nub of the problem is that you need to create a numeric variable with values in the right order. Because a regression model can only take numeric variables, statistics has long solved the problem by converting a categorical variable of n values into n-1 dummy variables. Run the compress command to actually shrink the variable types. One-hot encoding converts a categorical variable of n values into n dummy variable. save "my_data. These are: tostring date, gen(datevar) gen date2 = date(datevar, "YMD") format date2 %td Explanation. cprdenttype inputs an integer number, assumed to be a CPRD enttype (or entity type) value, and a filename, assumed to be a Stata dataset produced by the cprd_entity module of cprdutil, with one observation for each enttype value known to Abstract. To convert a numeric variable to an string variable type gen stringvar string from STATISTICS 4030 at Cornell University The words name, age, test1, and test2 are the variable names. I have a date variable date, type long, format %tdCCYYNN. That numeric part is what we call the variable J. g. 0g. If you have a string variable that has only numbers in it, then you can alternatively use the real () function. 89498 DE 1992 4. recode : recode categorical variable. One-hot encoding converts a categorical variable of n values into n dummy variable. generate newvar = autocode( var, n, a, b ) recodes the numeric variable var into a categorical variable newvar with n equal-length intervals; a and b are the two boundaries where a is inclusive. It currently looks like that: cdint 25 Jan 07 29 Jan 07 13 Jan 07 29 Jan 07 04 Feb 07 24 Jan 07 01 Feb 07 13 Jan 07 26 Jan 07 21 Jan 07 25 Jan 07 13 Jan 07 15 Jan 07 14 Jan 07 12 Jan 07 23 Jan 07 05 Feb 07 27 Jan 07 See full list on stats. 3. Dev. Alternatives: gen heavy=0 replace heavy=1 if weight>=4000 & weight!=. 81311 US 1992 1. To create a variable (for example, avg) that stores the average of four variables (for example, v1, v2, v3, and v4 ), use: gen avg = (v1 + v2 + v3 + v4) / 4. If you want to convert the chr+lbl variables to a traditional categorical variable that is internally stored and represented in the output as the labels, use the as_factor() function. format %td mydate I tsset these data with mydate as the time variable and then list the first five observations, along with the first lag of index . o Make sure that there are no spaces or special characters that Stata cannot handle in In Stata, if your variable is numeric and you are missing data, you will see . Forums for Discussing Stata; General; You are not logged in. For instance, for monthly series the date format will be YYYY. Numbers in Stata can take a variety of interesting formats, including negative values, decimals and positive and negative scienfitic notation (e. For this example, let’s load the auto training dataset and run the describe command: sysuse auto, clear describe Let us assume that I have a variable like country of origin or a hometown. destring converts a string variable where the values are actually all numbers (for example the variable takes on values like "2" and "51") to a numeric variable. describe marital encode marital, gen(marst) codebook marst codebook is very handy for seeing what the actual values of the new variable are. By default rescale uses the first integer in the value label as the value to recode to. As discussed earlier, size of one-hot vectors is equal to the number of unique values that a categorical column takes up and each such vector contains exactly one ‘1’ in it. encode mystringcatvar, generate(newcatvar) Describing your variables as "numeric" does not tell us much about them. When I tried, it said type mismatch I have tried the real and the encode commands, none of which are working. Recode the marital variable into a string variable and then back into a numeric variable. a” or “. Tip #3. STATA generally assumes that variables contain numbers. Example of turning string variables into numeric variables are shown. 63814 US 1993 2. When exporting SAS data to a Stata file, the EXPORT procedure converts SAS numeric data into Stata variable type double. The encode command converts string variables to numeric, by assigning a numeric value to each distinct string value (category) and then applying value labels of the original string values. It is labeled. But it is stored as float and gives me major toruble when I am using the values to generate new variables etc. We will illustrate this with the hsb2 data file with a variable called write that ranges from 31 to 67. Cox, 2009. . I am very new to Stata. If you have questions about using statistical and mathematical software at Indiana University, contact the UITS Research Applications and Deep Learning team . ) ; drop id ; rename char_id=id ; Below are a few examples of data conversions using the PUT function: Convert string variables to numeric variables and vice versa 140 Encode string into numeric and vice versa 196 Put Stata variables into Mata and vice versa 526 1- because encoding them gives them a value label corresponding to the original string. input testvar1 1. Create a new variable is numeric. describe marital encode marital, gen(marst) label variable marst "marital status" codebook marst gen married = 1 replace married = 0 if marst != 3 You can use keep or drop to get rid of variables or values that you don't want. This is convenient because it will not affect calculations you might do using the data (for example if you calculate an average). log Type in some made-up numeric variable called testvar1: . The column provides a step-by-step guide explaining how to convert them or—as the case may merit—to leave them as they are. While useful for a human eye, a computer can't glean much from data in this format. I can use the so called label encoder to encode these variable. EXECUTE. For more information on Statalist, see the FAQ. g. sysuse auto, clear This video demonstrates how to convert categorical string variables to labeled numeric variables. edu> To: <statalist@hsphsun2. log using “C:\test. When generating a new variable Method 1 (1) Using Nick Cox's -labgen-. The dummy variable trap manifests itself directly from one-hot-encoding applied on categorical variables. This command is used to convert string variables into numeric variables and vice versa. drop marital keep if age>=18 To recode variables in Stata, use the recode command. These commands rely on value labels, which are described below. Note that while using list, and some other data display commands, produces values that look like string dates, the actual values stored by Stata are numeric. That is, one dummy variable can not be a constant multiple or a simple linear relation of Keywords: dm0099, indicator variable, dummy variable, true or false, any, all, missing values, logical and relational operators, functions, merge 1 Introduction We deﬁne indicator or dummy variables at the outset as numeric variables taking on a value of 1 when some condition is true and a value of 0 when that condition is false. sysuse auto, clear . To convert, use the command “destring ”. In essence, what you want as value labels are already in your string variable as string values. Nicholas J. Click on each link below to view the tutorial. Or shorter. The concept of string values is explored using the commands tostring and destring and encode and decode. Drop variables or observations: ds: Compactly list variables with specified properties: duplicates: Report, tag, or drop duplicate observations: dyngen: Dynamically generate new values of variables: edit: Browse or edit data with Data Editor: egen: Extensions to generate: encode: Encode string into numeric and vice versa: erase: Erase a disk In our dataset, there are 2 variables which are INC and UE. Stata usually interprets this format as numeric. In Stata you need to convert this string variable to a date variable. encode maps the distinct strings of a string variable to an integer-valued nu- 1/9/03 C:\all\help\helpnew\string_stata. 61242 DE 1993 0. -encode- generates a numeric variable from a string variable and uses the string values as labels for the generated numeric values. Handle: RePEc:boc:bocode:s456993 Note: This module should be installed from within Stata by typing "ssc install multencode". When variable is date, float is OK. encode will change a string variable into a variable with numeric values. To find out more about converting string dates to numeric, you can read A tour of datetime in Stata. To fix this, click on the column so that they are highlighted in blue (hold down the Ctrl key to select more than one at once), then right-click and select "Force selected columns to use numeric types. Therefore, this type of encoding is used only for ordered categorical variables with equal spacing. KEY: If you use oneway, then the predictor variable is allowed to be string or numeric If you use anova, then the predictor variable must be numeric. The two main commands used in Stata when working with strings are tostring, destring, encode and decode. Byte is used for three digits, int for 4 or 5, long for up to 10, float for up to 50, and double for up to 318. "ENCODELABEL: Stata module to encode string variable into categorical variable," Statistical Software Components S458862, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 06 Nov 2020. stata Delimited: Variable values are delimited (or separated) in the file by a special character, such as a comma or a tab. ) based on the twelve observed values of region. Note rescale works on numeric variables with value labels. The encode command turns categorical string variables into encoded numeric variables, while its counterpart decode reverses this operation. ” Compressing Data Opening/saving a Stata datafile Quick way of finding variables Subsetting (using conditional “if”) Stata color coding system From SPSS/SAS to Stata Example of a dataset in Excel From Excel to Stata (copy-and-paste, *. The encode command has generated a new variable called region2 that is of type long integer and has value labels which are defined and are also called region2. numeric variable, but it should be a string variable. schechter@einstein. 6. Adding a value label to a variable in Stata is a two-step process. A SAS date format becomes a Stata date variable. See help foreach and help macro for details. Not surprisingly, Stata requires the numeric variable to be labeled; these labels will be used as strings to represent the different values. egen y = group(x) Scott ----- Original Message ----- From: "george m hoffman" <ghoffman@mcw. In Stata you can create new variables with generate and you can modify the values of an existing variable with replace and with recode. Some systematic treatment of your string variables is called for, perhaps applying encode or destring (see [D] encode or [D] destring) or perhaps moving them to one end of the dataset with order (see [D] order). Note: Use the / (slash) to denote division and an * (asterisk) for multiplication. " Now they should turn black, indicating a numeric variable. encode maps the distinct strings of a string variable to an integer-valued numeric variable for which the strings become value labels. To use recode, you must provide a list of variables to be recoded and the rules associated with that change. See full list on ssc. With this command, we can either generate a new variable or replace the existing one. Numbers "disguised" as strings. The PUT function writes values with a specified format. foreach : loop over elements of a list, performing a block of code. msdecode is a multivariate The Stata command "destring" and "encode" could be used to convert string variables to numeric variables. g. 27226 DE 1990 3. 2 The floating-point types are float and double. Below is link: http://www. Nor should you want to. If you are not familiar with value labels, read [U] 12. harvard. destring, encode and recast are all (almost always) completely wrong in Stata for converting string dates and/or times to numeric dates and/or times. edu The second command formats the numeric value so that when Stata displays the date, it is in a form that is easy for humans to read. If you have a string variable and want to convert it to a numeric variable, you can use the encode command. How to label variables; How to label the values of categorical variables; How to add notes to a variable; How to convert a string variable to a numeric variable; How to convert categorical string variables to labeled numeric variables; How to create a date variable from a date stored as a string; How to convert missing value codes to missing values These chr+lbl columns imported by haven are labeled categorical variables in SAS and treated as categorical variables in R, but show up as numeric values (e. , 3s to 3. 3 Value labels. If the data are not numeric, STATA needs to be told that a variable is non-numeric (a text "string") and the longest the Stata stores and saves date and time as numeric intervals referenced from 1 Jan 1960 (01jan1960 = 0) When the variable is time, one should use double variable type. We use rename ([D] rename) to change v4 to d1960, v5 to d1961 and so on, as described in Section 3. %include "T:\ \exvar. In this section we will see how to compute variables with generate and replace. I have 500 vars. , "female" instead of "1") you have to tell Stata to encode [varname] the string data. Then I wanted to encode this variable in some numeric way. : Part 2: Converting string variables with non-numeric values into numeric variables. The waiting_days is numeric, while the category variable is string containing 11 unique sub-groups with values from Category 1, Category 2, etc. 96 . replace Used to modify the contents (values) of existing variables. ucla. The ﬁrst need is to The next step is to verify it is in the correct format. Please check that the: Stata data file created has not lost information due to duplicate labels. The syntax of encode is: encode old_var, gen(new_var) In the above dataset both gender and edu are string variables. The “YMD” specifies how the datevar has the sorting of year, month, and day I have a variable state that takes integer values from 11 to 99. converted to a numeric variable: . 985915 DE 1991 1. Note the quotation marks: whenever you talk about string variables the values need to go in quotation marks. […] The categories of a categorical variable are usually not numeric. It takes, as input, a string variable, and generates, as output, a numeric variable, with value labels Because a regression model can only take numeric variables, statistics has long solved the problem by converting a categorical variable of n values into n-1 dummy variables. smcl” Check the status of logging: . Therefore, if the data set doesn't actually include string variables, csv2mat_numeric should be preferred since it only needs the filename as input. Stata can store numbers in five different types of variables. The destring command might be the first choice for converting string variables to numeric if we have a limited number of non-numeric characters. to obtain the format of, e. The destring command is the easy way to convert strings to numbers. If you are not familiar with value labels, read [U] 12. 3 Missing Values. Assuming sic0 is a one 1. , 1. The general idea behind target encoding is that categories which correspond to larger values of target variable will be encoded with larger numbers. sdecode is especially useful if a numeric variable has value labels for some values but not for others. generate mynum = 42. Stata value labels (pandas categories) must be strings. How to convert a string variable into a new, numeric variable. Reshape from wide to long. tostring marital, gen (marstring) destring marstring, gen (mardstring) //compare with decode marital, gen (marital_s) encode marital_s, gen (marital_n) describe marital marstring mardstring marital_s marital_n sum marital marstring mardstring marital_s x is a numeric variable that takes on discrete values (for example, calendar year) x can be non-integer, but again, the values should be discrete. One way the id variable can become corrupted is if it is not stored properly or if it is read improperly. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- pop_c | 50 1. g positive in nity) thus they are included when you use generate heavy if weight >= 4000. Computing new variables using generate and replace. The great divide among data types in Stata is between numeric and string variables. Stata recently gave the rename command the ability to convert names to lower case: rename *, lower Hi everyone, I have a variable stored as float chip eligibility rate variable. Keep in mind Stata doesn’t now how to mathematically use strings. ) About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators However, in Stata, variables used as either independent or dependent variables typically cannot be strings and should be made numeric. 3 Value labels. The cprdenttype package is intended for use with datasets produced by the cprdutil package to convert CPRD entity string data variables to numeric variables. 2). Daniel Klein, 2020. g. dta", replace – save the current data to a file, overwriting any existing file. String variables are RED. Encoding a string variable containing "Yes", "No," and "I don't know" as a numeric variable containing 1, 2, and 3 will also reduce its memory usage to 1 byte per observation, but you can Convert String Variables that Contain Numbers to Numeric Variables. Only numeric variables can have value labels. . Local macros are used. encode countrycode, generate(cc). Change date format to number of days so that it may be used in analysis. very straightforward - varies between . generate mydate = date(date,"YMD") . “command” - The primary operation, e. Another common scenario gives you dates as three separate numeric variables, one for the year, one for the month and one for the day. In any case, as soon as the number of possibilities exceeds 10, you will need to punctuate to I think below link will be more useful and with the help of this you will found more things if you need any help feel free to ping me. labels" attribute if it exists or the variable name otherwise). encode is most useful in making string variables accessible to Stata’s statistical routines, most of which can work only with numeric variables. , 80, 81, 82 Data management & graphics in Stata Introduction to Stata • Starting Stata • Setting layout • Directory management commands • Data types in Stata • Using Stata as a calculator • Stata command and options • Stata do-files • Creating data sets directly in Stata • Rename of variables • Managing variables and/or variable Variable Types. It sometimes happens that you need to process in Stata data imported from other software and end up with a numerical variable recording a date or datetime in the other software’s encoding. If you are working with string variables, the data will appear as [blank]. We converted such string dates to numeric dates using date() and clock() functions. The first command that comes to mind is -encode-*. Converting string variables with numeric values. , v17. Stata stores numeric dates as the number of elapsed days since 01 Jan 1960 for date() and the number of elapsed milliseconds since 01 Jan 1960 00:00:00:000 for clock(). 1 and 4. Let's say your date of birth variable is called "dob". Most of the time, which kind you want to use for particular variables is clear and unproblematic, but surprisingly often, users face difficulties in making the right decision or need to convert variables from one kind to another. each have a particular name and label. Target encoding: each level of categorical variable is represented by a summary statistic of the target for that level. We SENCODE: Stata module to encode a string variable non-alphanumerically into a numeric variable. [. gen married = 1 replace married = 0 if marst != 3 Using destring. If a 1. rename old_varname new_varname - change the name of a variable. Another way to convert numeric variables to categorical or factor variables is to use autocode, the automated version of recode. stata encode numeric variable